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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-35

Determination of prostatic volume and characteristics by transrectal ultrasound among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in Zaria, Nigeria

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Mohammed
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-9596.136707

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Background: To determine the average volume and ultrasonographic characteristics of the prostate with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) among adult male patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This is because the size and characteristics of the prostate may suggest the specific pathology and guide the urologist on subsequent investigations and the choice of the most appropriate treatment. Patients and Methods: All male patients, 30 years or older, presenting with LUTS in the absence of non-prostatic causes of LUTS between 2006 and 2010 were included in the study. Patients with clinical suspicion or confirmed cause of LUTS other than the prostate were excluded from the study. They were all evaluated by TRUS and the findings recorded. Results: A total number of 602 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 62.5 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 13.70. The average prostate volume for all patients was 56.2 (12.5-325) and SD 42.70, while the average prostate volume among patients with suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (317) was 68.7 g and SD 47.52. Diagnosis based on ultrasound features was BPH (52.7%, 317) in majority of the patients, 27.6% (166) suggested carcinoma of the prostate (CaP). The TRUS characteristics of patients with suspected BPH was predominantly mixed echo (51.7%), CaP commonly appeared hypoechoic (70.5%), while prostatitis appeared hyperechoic in most patients (69.4%). Conclusion: The mean prostate size of 68.7 g among patients with BPH is consistent with most studies among Nigerians, but greater than the mean volume among Caucasians. Thus, open prostatectomy remains relevant in our environment and accurate prostate volume estimation by TRUS is required for proper patient's selection for endoscopic treatment. The predominant ultrasonic features of BPH and CaP are mixed echo and hypoechoic appearance, respectively.

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