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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-164

Clinicopathological characterization of cancer patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

1 Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Department of Nursing Services, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
5 Department of Radiotherapy, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Adeyemi S Adewuyi
Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-9596.202370

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Background: Cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are commonly associated diseases, particularly in subsaharan Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of cancer patients with background HIV infection. Patients and Methods: This study was a retrospective study carried out between July 2006 and June 2013, at the radiotherapy and oncology department of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria. One hundred and two (102) histologically confirmed cancer patients were diagnosed to be HIV seropositive, of which 88 patients' folders were retrieved for retrospective analysis. Patients' clinical and laboratory information was documented during each visit and were analyzed using Epi Info software version 3.4.1; 2007 edition. Results: Out of the 88 patients studied, the male-to-female ratio was 1:2; median age was 40 years and age range was 23–65 years. Only 27 patients were housewives and 7 were students. Primary education and above was attained by 71 patients, and there was no formal education in 15 patients. Cancer-related symptoms were the indication for HIV screening in 45 patients and ill-health in another 43 patients. Source of HIV infection was attributed to heterosexuality and blood transfusion in 76 and 4 patients, respectively. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HIV-1 was seen in 37 patients, 1 patient had HIV-2, and 10 patients had HIV-1 and 2 seropositivity. Type of HIV was unspecified in 40 patients. Cervical cancer was the most common cancer (29) followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (23). Ocular cancer accounted for 12 out of 16 head and neck cancers. Most patients (70) presented with locally advanced disease and 16 patients with metastatic disease. The mean CD4 count was 323 and 402 cells/μl at presentation and 6 weeks after treatment, respectively. Only 44 patients were on highly active antiretroviral therapy at presentation. Only 24 patients had surgery; combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were given to 33 patients. No definitive treatment was given to 21 patients. Conclusion: Cervical cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most common malignancies seen with an underlying HIV infection.

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