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REVIEW ARTICLES
Pathophysiology and management of urinary retention in men
Ahmed Muhammed, Abdulkadir Abubakar
July-December 2012, 2(2):63-69
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.110018  
Background : Urinary retention is a common problem in the elderly. The incidence increases with age so that a man in his 70s has a 10% chance and a man in his 80s has more than 30% chance of having an episode of acute urinary retention. Inadequate management of the condition can lead to unnecessary morbidity and occasionally mortality. Increasing knowledge over the years of its pathophysiology has greatly improved the management. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the current concepts in the management of urinary retention in men. Materials and Methods: Current literature on the pathophysiology and management of urinary retention in men was reviewed. The PubMed database was searched using the key words; pathophysiology, management, urinary retention, and men. Results: Urinary retention is a common problem in the elderly worldwide; the incidence rises with age, and by the 9th decade of life, a man has more than 30% chance of an episode of retention. There are three main pathophysiologic mechanisms: Increased urethral resistance secondary to bladder outlet obstruction, impaired bladder contractility, and loss of normal bladder sensory or motor innervations. It may be acute, acute-on-chronic, or chronic. It is now generally agreed from urodynamic studies that the traditional slow decompression of the bladder in chronic retention does not serve its aim of gradual reduction of vesical pressure; thus, the current practice is immediate and complete decompression and managing anticipated complications of postobstructive diuresis or hematuria whenever they occur. Conclusion: Advanced age and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia remain the commonest risk factors for urinary retention. Secondary bladder dysfunction in bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor myogenic dysfunction, and alteration of bladder innervations are the major mechanisms. Immediate and complete decompression in both types of retention is the current practice.
  41,567 3,299 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation of gallstone disease with iron deficiency anemia
Rajashekara G Babu, Sumanth Bille
October-December 2017, 7(4):121-125
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_3_18  
Association between gallstone disease and iron deficiency anemia is not uncommon. The objective of this study was to assess correlation between gallstone formation and iron deficiency anemia in patients presenting with gallstone disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients' sonological evidence of gallstone were included in the study. Serum ferritin and serum iron levels were estimated. Gallstone patients were divided into anemic and non-anemic groups and compared with each other. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical principles. Patients and Methods: Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test , Yates correction, independent t-test or Mann–Whitney U test. Results: There was significant association between serum iron and hemoglobin levels in patients with gallstone disease. This study suggests that iron deficiency leading to anemia plays a significant role in super saturation of bile, leading to stone formation in the gall bladder. Conclusions: Low serum iron and ferritin levels were found to be statistically significant in gallstone patients. Significant correlation found between iron deficiency and gallstone disease. Iron deficiency and low serum ferritin are probably independent risk factors operating for the causation of gallstones.
  37,392 674 1
Ultrasound determination of gall bladder size and wall thickness in normal adults in Abuja, North Central Nigeria
Kolade-Yunusa Hadijat Oluseyi
October-December 2016, 6(4):214-218
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_50_16  
Background: Diseases of the gallbladder (GB) do affect its size and wall thickness. GB diseases are common pathology frequently encountered in medical practice and presents as right upper quadrant pain. Ultrasound is a relatively safe, inexpensive, and reproducible imaging modality for assessing normal or diseased GB. It is the first method of choice when GB disease is suspected. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine a referential value of normal GB size and thickness which can be used as baseline in this environment to determine GB disease and for follow-up of these patients. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 400 normal adults aged 15–70 years at the radiology department over a period of 10 months. Subjects had their GB scanned with 3.5 MHz transducer after fasting overnight. The length, width, and height were measured and the volume obtained using the ellipsoid formula. GB thickness was also recorded. Results: The overall mean age was 40.70 ± 14.97. Mean age of males and females were 46.32 ± 15.64, and 36.61 ± 12.33 respectively. The mean values for length, width, height, volume, and wall thickness of the GB was 6.40 ± 1.06 cm, 2.38 ± 0.77 cm, 2.77 ± 0.25 cm, 23.46 ± 8.14 cm3 and 0.27 ± 0.08 cm respectively. The mean values for, length, width, height, volume, and wall thickness of GB for males were 6.36 ± 1.03 cm, 2.46 ± 0.87 cm, 2.81 ± 0.29 cm, 24 ± 8.66 cm3 and 0.28 ± 0.76 cm and for females were 6.44 ± 1.10 cm, 2.30 ± 0.67 cm, 2.75 ± 0.22, 22.98 ± 7.63 cm3, and 0.26 ± 0.27 cm. Mean GBV was higher in males than females. Conclusion: Normal values of GB dimensions have been established in the north central Abuja using ultrasound. These values can be used as reference values in management of GB disease.
  26,729 376 -
Single-layered tissue inguinal hernia repair
Abdulkadir Yakubu, Hazakilu Usain
January-June 2012, 2(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.101261  
Background: There is still no consensus about the best and most cost-effective surgical approach to inguinal hernia repair. This study analyzes our experience in an open, non-mesh, one-layered inguinal hernia repair. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to December 2008, 1238 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair at two general hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Their age ranged from 18 to 87 years, with a mean of 45.3 ± 11.0 years. Following clinical evaluation, herniorrhaphy was done under appropriate anesthesia. Patients were discharged home the same day on oral drugs. Wound dressing was changed and sutures were removed on the 3 rd and 7 th days of the follow-up visits, respectively. Demographic information, types of hernias, associated diseases, and complications were analyzed. Results: Mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 3.4 ± 0.2 years. There were 742 patients (60.0%) with indirect hernia, 496 patients (40.1%) with direct hernia, 570 cases (46.1%) of inguinoscrotal hernia, 342 patients (27.6%) with bilateral hernia, and 33 patients (2.7%) with recurrent hernia. Local anesthesia was successful in 1046 patients (84.5%). Spinal anesthesia was used in 186 patients (15.0%). Six patients (0.5%) were operated under general anesthesia. The mean inpatient stay was 4.5 h. The average cost per patient was $99:00. The mean duration of surgery was 30 ± 2.0 min, ranging from 25 to 63 min. Postoperative pain syndrome was observed in 8.0% of cases. There was a recurrence of 2.7%. Conclusion: Single-layered tissue inguinal hernia repair under local anesthesia can be confidently performed by skilled surgeons with low complication and recurrence rate and is recommended for low-income communities.
  8,225 13,786 -
CASE REPORTS
Giant cervical polyp complicating uterine fibroid and masquerading as cervical malignancy
Muhammad A Abdul, Afolabi K Koledade, Nana Madugu
January-June 2012, 2(1):39-41
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.101273  
Introduction: Huge cervical polyp causing diagnostic dilemma is rarely encountered in gynecologic practice. The objective of this study is to document a case of huge cervical polyp masquerading as cervical cancer seen and managed in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Case Report: A 39-year-old trader para 5 + 0 who presented at the gynecologic unit with a 7-year history of fleshy mass protruding from the vagina which had been progressively increasing in size but was reducible. Physical examination revealed severe pallor, 16-week sized abdomino-pelvic firm irregular mass, and a huge firm mass protruding through the vagina, measuring 30 cm by 20 cm. The vaginal mass was irregular in shape and occupied the whole of the vagina. The cervix was not reachable. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed features of multiple intramural and subserous fibroids and a right simple cystic adneaxeal mass about 6 cm in diameter. Anemia was corrected, and at examination under anesthesia, a diagnosis of huge cervical polyp (arising from the posterior cervix) with multiple uterine fibroids was made. She had vaginal polypectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy using an abdomino-perineal approach. She did well postoperatively and subsequently on follow-up. Histology confirmed cervical fibroid polyp and uterine leiomyoma. Conclusion: Although giant cervical fibroid is rare, it may masquerade as cervical malignancy or uterine inversion. Proper evaluation is needed to make an accurate diagnosis.
  19,497 570 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
MAGPI technique for distal penile hypospadias; modifications to improve outcome at a single center
Arvind K Shukla, Aditya P Singh, Pramila Sharma, Jyotsna Shukla
October-December 2016, 6(4):201-205
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_37_16  
Background: Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly of urogenital organs in boys. We reviewed our experience with modification in the meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated (MAGPI) technique of hypospadias repair. We point out some modifications and outcomes of this technique in this study. Patients and Methods: We identified all patients who underwent modified MAGPI repair of the distal hypospadias by a single surgeon over a 10-year period. We performed a retrospective chart review by outdoor assessment postoperatively. We assessed parents' satisfaction with functional and cosmetic outcomes. Decision to undergo this type of repair was intraoperative, depending on position and mobility of the meatus, and the quality of periurethral tissue. We made some modifications in the original technique of the MAGPI including no trimming of the edge of the glans in granuloplasty, incorporation of the collar in the granuloplasty; leading to glans augmentation and taking stay suture over the ventral wall of the urethra with some perimeatal tissue. Results: Our study was a retrospective analysis. We collected data retrospectively and outcomes were assessed by the outpatient department visits in follow-up. We identified 150 patients, with a median age of 6 years (3–8 years). Position of meatus was glanular 90 (60%) or coronal 60 (40%). Chordee was minimal in our study and was corrected by only penile degloving. Urethral stenting was required in all patients for 3–4 days. There was no case of fistula, meatal regression, stenosis, mucosal prolapse, or second procedure. Cosmetic outcome was deemed satisfactory in 98% (147/150). Conclusion: In selected cases, our modifications in the MAGPI hypospadias repair provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes with minimal complications.
  16,901 603 2
Does midazolam produce retrograde amnesia in surgical patients?
Saidu Yusuf Yakubu
January-March 2017, 7(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_6_17  
Background: Midazolam is the commonest benzodiazepine used in anesthesia for premedication, induction, and maintenance of anesthesia. The popularity of midazolam in many clinical situations is because of its rapid onset, nonpainful injection, lack of venous irritation, and production of anterograde amnesia. This study was to determine whether or not immediate retrograde amnesia can be produced with intravenous midazolam and to elicit the extent of amnesia seen in adult patients given midazolam at induction. Patients and Methods: Eighty consenting American Society of Anesthesiology I and II patients between the ages of 18 and 60 years scheduled for nonmajor elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of four study groups: m2 (midazolam 2 mg), m5 (midazolam 5 mg), m7 (midazolam 7 mg), or m0 (normal saline). Visual recognition and recall was tested using 12 picture cards, each with an easily recognizable image. Results: Recognition and recall rates did not differ between the groups up to the time of drug injection. However, there was a deterioration in visual recall (P < 0.001), orientation in time and event recollection (P < 0.001), and mean sedation score (P < 0.001) on administration of study drug when compared with control. There was a statistically significant anterograde amnesia for pictures seen after administration of midazolam (P = 0.000). There was no evidence of retrograde amnesia (P > 0.3). Conclusion: Intravenous midazolam does not cause retrograde amnesia, however, it causes anterograde amnesia based on dose administered.
  14,431 507 -
CASE REPORTS
Vulva hematoma
Mathew Akpa, Adekunle O Oguntayo
January-June 2012, 2(1):37-38
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.101272  
Background: Vulva hematoma is a very rare maternal injury that usually presents in the third stage of labor after a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. Most cases develop insidiously with a sudden collapse and severe groin pain. Causes reported include imperfect repair of episiotomy and rupture of varicose vein of the vulva. We report an interesting case of vulva hematoma. Case Report: We present a case of a 22-year-old primipara referred from a peripheral hospital, having collapsed at home following an unsupervised spontaneous vaginal delivery at home 6 h earlier. At presentation, the patient was pale and in shock. There was a huge left vulva hematoma with a peri-urethral laceration up to the clitoris. Surgical treatment resulted in a good outcome. Conclusion: Vulva hematoma is a rare cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. This case reminds an obstetrician to be suspicious of vulva hematoma in a patient in shock postpartum.
  11,707 598 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of arterial pH, bicarbonate levels, and base deficit at presentation as markers of predicting morbidity and mortality in acute pancreatitis
Aditya Varshney, Mohammad Aslam, Junaid Alam
January-March 2018, 8(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_23_18  
Background: The development of metabolic acidosis can occur commonly during critical illness. It is a clinical disturbance characterized by a low arterial pH, a reduced plasma HCO3 concentration, and compensatory hyperventilation. An extensive search for objective tools that predict severity and outcome at the time of hospital admission remains a major challenge. Patients and Methods: Patients with acute pancreatitis presenting to our unit between January 2012 and November 2013 were prospectively studied. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was done at admission, and development of organ failure, any need for intervention, and mortality were noted. The association between various parameters of ABG analysis and the development of organ failure or local complications, need for interventions (endoscopic/radiological/surgical), and mortality were analyzed. Results: In all, 100 patients (mean age: 36.25 ± 12.86 years; 47.0% males and 53.0% females) were studied. The etiology of acute pancreatitis was Gall stone disease in 52 (52.0%), Alcoholism in 35 (35%), and others in 13 patients (13%). Of the 100 patients, acute fluid collections developed in 84 patients (84%). Multiple organ failure developed in 18 patients (18%). Respiratory failure developed in 68 patients (68%) and renal failure developed in 15 patients (15%), whereas 13 patients (13%) developed shock. Seven of the 19 patients (36.84%) with pH ≤7.35 died when compared with 1 of 81 patients (1.23%) with pH >7.35 (P = 0.001). Seven of the 58 patients (13.79%) with bicarbonate ≤24 mEq/L died when compared with 1 of 42 patients (2.38%) with bicarbonate >24 mEq/L (P = 0.05). Seven of 36 patients (19.4%) with base deficit ≥−4.0 died when compared with 1 of 64 patients (1.56%) with base deficit >4.0 (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Low arterial pH, low bicarbonate levels, and higher base deficit at presentation predict an adverse outcome with more frequency of organ failure, need for intervention, and mortality.
  11,202 377 -
Ureterocele in adults: Management of patients in Zaria, Nigeria
Ahmed Muhammed, Maitama Y Hussaini, Bello Ahmad, Mbibu N Hyacinth, Kalayi D Garba
January-June 2012, 2(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.101262  
Background: Ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It remains a rare urologic condition in non-Caucasians and is even less common in adults. Single-system ureteroceles are usually found in adults, and thus the name "adult" ureterocele. Though uncommon, urologists practicing in this region should be acquainted with the management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of folders of 10 adult patients who were admitted for surgical treatment of ureterocele in our center between 2000 and 2009 was done. The information obtained included: age, sex, type and number of ureterocele, associated disease, type of surgical intervention, complications, and follow-up. Results: The age range was 20-49 years, with a mean age of 31 years. Of these patients, seven were females and three were males. Six patients had unilateral ureterocele while four had bilateral disease, making a total of 14 ureteroceles. The presenting symptoms were flank pain and painful micturition, each occurring in 60% of the patients. Genitourinary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 4 (40%) patients. Other associated pathologies were impacted stone in the ureterocele and vesical schistosomiasis. The treatment was mainly by open method (70%), while the rest had endoscopic treatment. All the patients did well and there were no significant perioperative complications. Conclusion: The finding of associated pathology in our patients supports the theory of an acquired origin. Urologists practicing in this region need to have a high index of suspicion and be acquainted with the variable clinical presentations, radiographic features, and treatment options in order to be able to effectively manage these occasional cases.
  9,387 552 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Management of rectal prolapse
Saleh M Al Daqal
July-December 2012, 2(2):57-62
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.110017  
Background: Rectal prolapse is a chronic disease that commonly affects elderly women in which the rectum partially or fully intussuscepts and comes out through anal canal. Management of this condition is challenging and there are different surgical approaches to this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare different surgical treatment modalities in the treatment of rectal prolapse. Materials and Methods: Literature review of all articles concerned with management of rectal prolapse which were published in PubMed was done between the periods from January 1990 to July 2012. Different surgical options for rectal prolapse repair were reviewed and the outcome of these procedures in terms of the recurrence rate and the complications were evaluated. Results: Surgical options in management of rectal prolapse are abdominal, perineal, laparoscopic, and robotic approaches. Conclusion: The choice of treatment in rectal prolapse is determined by several factors including the patient age, sex, general condition of the patients, and institutional capabilities. Perineal procedures are less invasive and are the ideal choice for elderly debilitated women and young male patients' consideration, but it is associated with higher rate of recurrence. The open abdominal approach is beneficial to patients with long redundant sigmoid colon and has less recurrence rate, but it is associated with prolonged recovery period and higher morbidities. Laparoscopic and robotic approaches are less invasive and provide the low recurrence rate of the abdominal approach with a recovery period that is more like the perineal approach.
  5,509 4,333 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Determination of prostatic volume and characteristics by transrectal ultrasound among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in Zaria, Nigeria
Ahmed Mohammed, Ahmed Bello, Hussaini Y Maitama, Hafees O Ajibola, Ahmad T Lawal, Mohammed J Isah, Abdullahi Alhassan, Babagana M Abubakar, Hassan M Dogo, Sadiq A Muhammad, Abdullahi Sudi, Mudi Awaisu
January-April 2014, 4(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.136707  
Background: To determine the average volume and ultrasonographic characteristics of the prostate with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) among adult male patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This is because the size and characteristics of the prostate may suggest the specific pathology and guide the urologist on subsequent investigations and the choice of the most appropriate treatment. Patients and Methods: All male patients, 30 years or older, presenting with LUTS in the absence of non-prostatic causes of LUTS between 2006 and 2010 were included in the study. Patients with clinical suspicion or confirmed cause of LUTS other than the prostate were excluded from the study. They were all evaluated by TRUS and the findings recorded. Results: A total number of 602 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 62.5 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 13.70. The average prostate volume for all patients was 56.2 (12.5-325) and SD 42.70, while the average prostate volume among patients with suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (317) was 68.7 g and SD 47.52. Diagnosis based on ultrasound features was BPH (52.7%, 317) in majority of the patients, 27.6% (166) suggested carcinoma of the prostate (CaP). The TRUS characteristics of patients with suspected BPH was predominantly mixed echo (51.7%), CaP commonly appeared hypoechoic (70.5%), while prostatitis appeared hyperechoic in most patients (69.4%). Conclusion: The mean prostate size of 68.7 g among patients with BPH is consistent with most studies among Nigerians, but greater than the mean volume among Caucasians. Thus, open prostatectomy remains relevant in our environment and accurate prostate volume estimation by TRUS is required for proper patient's selection for endoscopic treatment. The predominant ultrasonic features of BPH and CaP are mixed echo and hypoechoic appearance, respectively.
  8,804 476 2
Comparative study between Moss-Miami pedicle screw system and Hartshill rectangle for lumbar spondylolisthesis
Ajit Swamy, Amit Swamy, Vikram Jaisoliya
July-December 2012, 2(2):83-90
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.110031  
Background: Many different treatment modalities have been advocated by different authors from time to time for lumbar spondylolisthesis. The principle underlying surgery includes stabilization of the slipping vertebrae. Various operative methods encompassing this principle include posterior interbody fusion, posterior stabilization, facet joint fusion, posterolateral fusion, excision of loose segment, and anterior interbody fusion. The objective of this study was to compare Moss-Miami pedicle screw system with Hartshill rectangle in the management of isthmic and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between Moss-Miami pedicle screw fixation with facet joint fusion and Hartshill rectangle fixation with facet joint fusion after adequate decompression for Isthmic and Degenerative Lumbar spondylolisthesis. All patients of spondylolisthesis as per inclusion criteria admitted undergoing decompression, posterior stabilization, and facet fusion during the period 2009-2011 in D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune were included in the study. Results: A total of twenty patients were included with mean age 47.15 years. Fifteen were females and five males. Seven females and three males underwent Moss-Miami pedicular fixation and eight females and two males underwent Hartshill fixation. Oswestry disability scoring (ODS) scores of the two groups was 4.25 and 4.23 respectively at the end of 12 months. Patients in both the groups improved significantly as assessed by the ODS system. Conclusions: Our results show that both the Moss-Miami Pedicle screw fixation and Hartshill rectangle fixation were of similar benefit as regards the stabilization of the lumbar spine.
  8,547 443 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Latex glove allergy: The story behind the "invention" of the surgical glove and the emergence of latex allergy
Anokha Oomman, Susmita Oomman
September-December 2013, 3(3):201-204
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.129563  
Latex rubber gloves have become increasingly common over the last 30 years. This has led to an increase in allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins in health care professionals using protective gloves and/or in those exposed to products made of NRL. This has led to a growing need to monitor the allergenicity of gloves and other latex goods to prevent sensitization and clinical allergy. There is still considerable amount of misinformation regarding latex allergy. In this article, we examine the history behind the "invention" of the surgical glove, the emergence of latex allergy and the diagnostic tests available and possible remedies. We searched PubMed and MedLine using key words such as Latex allergy, surgical gloves, rubber, immunoglobulin E proteins, radioallergosorbent test. Recent and old papers on the subject were reviewed and analyzed. Surgical gloves were a huge milestone in the field of surgery as it allowed the development in the field of asepsis. It was instrumental in reducing the rates of infection and making health care professionals think about aseptic techniques. However, the emergence of latex allergy over the last few decades has proved a challenge in the perioperative setting. Surgical gloves are important tools in performing safe surgery. However, the increasing incidence of latex allergy and its effects on theatre personnel is of great concern.
  4,727 4,055 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cyto-morphologic correlation of equivocal C3 and C4 breast lesions
Ibrahim Yusuf, Akinfenwa T Atanda, Mohammed I Imam
September-December 2014, 4(3):131-135
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.146401  
Background: National Cancer Institute (NCI) formulated a five-tiered system for reporting cytological smears from the breast. Of these, C1, C2 and C5 are usually unequivocal. The equivocal categories C3 (atypical probably benign) and C4 (suspicious probably malignant) need to be evaluated to determine their cyto-morphologic correlation and thus provide useful information on the degree of clinical weight that can be put on them in patient management. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of cytological smears made from palpable breast lesions performed over a 5-year period from 2008-2012. The C3 and C4 smears were then compared with final histological diagnoses for these categories and their diagnostic value calculated. Result: There were 1,162 smears taken over the study period, and 200 (17.2%) had subsequent histology. Of the 200 smears, 20 were C3 and 27 were designated as C4. Subsequent histology upgraded 7 (35%) of the C3 cases to malignant and 23 (85%) of the 27 C4 cases were malignant. The difference between these two proportions is statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall Suspicious Rate was 23.5% and C4 reports had a sensitivity of 76.7%, specificity of 76.5%, positive and negative predictive values of 85.2% and 65.0% respectively. Conclusion: A fair degree of clinical reliance can still be placed on cytologically categorized C3 and C4 breast smears. However, the rate of reporting of these categories can be reduced with availability of ancillary radiological techniques such as mammography and ultrasonography.
  4,642 4,090 1
Chronic granulomatous mastitis: A therapeutic dilemma revisited
Vinayak V Kshirsagar, Prashant V Male, Mahendra Bendre, Shahaji Chavan, Sarang Rathod
April-June 2016, 6(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.194983  
Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease. Because of obscure etiology and diagnosis, its management remains a challenge. Rareness and varied presentation of IGM makes it difficult to standardize treatment protocol. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentations, imaging findings, clinical course, and management of patients who were treated for IGM. Patients and Methods: In this study, a retrospective review of 15 patients with IGM between January 2012 and December 2014 was performed based on clinical, radiological, and pathological findings; follow-up information and recurrence were obtained from records. Results: The median age of presentation was 30 years (age range: 24–42). All patients were married and parous with a history of breast feeding. Breast mass with or without skin changes was a symptom in all patients. While parenchymal heterogeneity, abscess, and mass were the findings of ultrasound, increased asymmetric density was the main finding of mammography. Wide local excision was performed in 7 (46.7%) patients and incisional biopsy with abscess drainage in 4 (26.7%) patients. Medical treatment was given to 4 (26.7%) patients. Median follow-up was 24 (range: 10–34) months. Eleven patients (73%) were recurrence free. Conclusions: Granulomatous mastitis often presents as a breast lump with or without skin changes. The diagnosis is done with pathological examination of the surgical specimen or biopsy. The main treatment should be guided according to the clinical presentation either surgical or medical or both.
  8,237 366 2
Determination of normal portal vein diameter on ultrasound scan among adults in northeastern Nigeria
Aminu Umar Usman, Philip Ibinaiye, Ahmed Ahidjo, Abdurrahman Tahir, Sulaiman Tanimu Sa'ad, Zainab Mustapha, Nasiru Tahir, Sani Garko
July-September 2015, 5(3):143-148
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.167507  
Background: Despite the safety, affordability, and widespread use of ultrasound (US); there is paucity of literature on ultrasonographic assessment of portal vein (PV) diameter in adult patients in our environment. This study was aimed at determining the mean and range of PV diameter in normal adults in northeastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was carried out at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January and June, 2013. Two hundred and fifty normal adult male and female patients aged 18 years and above underwent abdominal ultrasonography for measurement of their main, right, and left PV diameter in both inspiration and expiration. The relationship between the PV diameter and age was correlated using Pearson's correlation test. While the difference between the two sexes and phases of respiration were compared using Student's t-test. Results: There were 187 (74.8%) males and 63 (25.2%) females aged between 19 and 77 years, mean 43.78 ± 12.97 years. The mean diameter of the main PV was 10.87 mm ± 0.81. The mean diameter of the right and left PVs were 4.35 mm ± 0.52 and 4.12 mm ± 0.52, respectively. The PV diameter correlated with age and respiratory phases (P < 0.05). There was statistically significant difference in PV diameter between males and females (P < 0.05) with values higher in females. Conclusion: The mean PV diameter in normal adults has been established in northeastern Nigeria. The diameter correlated with age and showed significant difference between the two sexes and respiratory phases.
  8,189 336 1
Evaluation of intraoperative peritoneal lavage with super-oxidized solution and normal saline in acute peritonitis
Pankaj K Garg, Ashwani Kumar, Vijay K Sharda, Ashok Saini, Arun Garg, Amit Sandhu
January-April 2013, 3(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.117121  
Background: The fundamentals in the treatment of acute peritonitis include resuscitation, treatment of septicemia, control of the contaminating source and peritoneal toilet. Numerous studies have shown the roles of different solutions such as normal saline, antibiotics and betadine as intraperitoneal lavage, in reducing morbidity and mortality of peritonitis. The objective of this study was to present our findings on the role of intraperitoneal lavage with normal saline and normal saline followed by super-oxidized solution in patients with acute peritonitis. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly allotted by slip method into two groups of 50 each. In the control group, after the definitive surgery for the pathology of peritonitis, the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with normal saline and closed after putting drains. In the study group, after the definitive surgery the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with saline followed by 100 ml of super-oxidized solution and drains were closed for 1 h after abdominal closure. The patients were followed-up for morbidity and mortality. Results: Surgical site infection (SSI) was present in 27 out of 100 cases in both groups. In the study group, out of 7 infected cases, intraperitoneal fluid cultures were positive in 6 cases, but only 3 had positive swab cultures. In the control group, out of 20 infected cases, swab culture was positive in 16 cases (p = 0.0399). Among the study group, bowel sounds return in 4.10 ± 1.20 days compared to 5.9 ± 1.17 in the control group. In the study group, fever >100°F developed in 14 (28%) patients in the post-operative period whereas in the control group it was 29 (58%) (p < 0.0024). SSI rates in the two groups were (7/50) 14% and (20/50) 40% respectively (p = 0.0034). Conclusion: This study suggests that super-oxidized solution is effective and safe in reducing post-operative complications including SSI, burst abdomen and episodes of post-operative fever.
  7,640 833 5
Comparison between tubularized incised plate urethroplasty and other types of urethroplasty for mid and distal penile hypospadias
Anju Verma, Gaurav Gupta, Faisal Ameer, Abhishek Jain, Sunil Kaval
October-December 2015, 5(4):195-198
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.174656  
Background: Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly seen in the male child. The aim of this study was to compare tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty and other types of single stage urethroplasty for mid and distal penile hypospadias. Patients and Methods: Seventy-seven patients having mid and distal penile hypospadias were assessed prospectively and retrospectively from March 2010 to September 2014. The study had retrospective (March 2010-February 2013) and prospective (April 2013-September 2014) divisions. Forty-four patients underwent surgical repair using TIP technique and 33 patients, using other urethroplasties (Mathieu, meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporation, and Asopa techniques). Patients were reviewed at 2 weeks, 1-month, and 3 months after discharge. Data including fistula formation, cosmetic disfigurement, and duration of the surgery were collected and the two groups were compared. Results: In both retrospective and prospective groups, TIP urethroplasty has a better outcome than other type of urethroplasties for both mid and distal hypospadias. The fistula formation rates were 31.82% (7) and 64.70% (11) in distal and 31.82% (7) and 62.5% (10) in mid hypospadias in TIP and other urethroplasty group, respectively, significant result in distal hypospadias. The cosmetic disfigurement rates were 5.88% (1) and 17.64% (3) in distal and 9.09% (2) and 18.75% (3) in mid hypospadias in TIP and other urethroplasty group, respectively. Mean operative time duration in TIP urethroplasty was 90.79 min and 110.15 min in other urethroplasty group and was statistically significant. Conclusion: TIP urethroplasty is a simple procedure for treatment of both mid and distal penile hypospadias, with less complications and satisfactory results as compared to other urethroplasties. Cosmetic appearance of urethral meatus was also more satisfactory with TIP urethroplasty than other urethroplasties.
  4,023 4,272 -
CASE REPORTS
Management of clavicular non-union with plate fixation and bone grafting
Mazharuddin A Khan, Sujitkumar R Vakati
January-April 2013, 3(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.117118  
Symptomatic clavicular non-union is a rare clinical condition which causes pain and functional disability, if not managed on time. We report the long-term consequences in a 25 year old young male patient with established atrophic and aseptic non-union of the middle third of the clavicle. Patient was treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) Dynamic Compression Plate and autologous cancellous bone grafting harvested from the iliac crest. There was no operative or post-operative complications and the patient returned to the previous level of activities. We conclude that plate fixation with bone grafting is a reliable and safe method for the management of symptomatic non-united fractures of the middle third of the clavicle.
  7,799 391 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of pyometra in cervical cancer patients on radiotherapy
JC Ekweani, AO Oguntayo, A. O. D. Kolawole, MS Zayyan
July-September 2016, 6(3):165-169
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.202374  
Background: Pyometra is a gynecological emergency in cervical cancer patients receiving radiotherapy because it can be complicated by perforation, sepsis, and death. It can delay initiation and continuation of treatment. For certain select patients who may not be able to undergo drainage of the lesion under anesthesia via cervical dilatation and drainage, ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage is a good alternative. We report the successes recorded in using an alternative route for pyometra drainage in cervical cancer patients on radiotherapy when the conventional examination under anesthesia and cervical drainage was not possible. Patients and Methods: Following institutional ethical approval, a prospective study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2016 on selected patients referred from the radio-oncology unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit with pyometra complicating advanced cervical cancer on radiotherapy. Initial attempts at cervical dilatation and drainage under anesthesia were unsuccessful necessitating this approach of percutaneous drainage under ultrasound guidance with mild sedation after obtaining informed consent. Results: Six patients were managed with a mean age of 58.5 years, who were diagnosed with advanced cervical cancers clinical stages 2B to 3A on radiotherapy. An average of 200 ml of pus was drained, and culture revealed mixed infections with predominant anaerobes strongly sensitive to metronidazole. There was recurrence in 1 case (16.7%) after 1 month of follow-up requiring a repeat procedure. Conclusion: The procedure is relatively cheap, safe, and effective in selected patients.
  7,803 376 2
Cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiographs as a predictor of hypertensive heart disease among adults with systemic hypertension
Solomon Daniel Halilu, Joshua Oluwafemi Aiyekomogbon, Joseph Bako Igashi, Hamza M Ahmed, Yningi Salihu Aliyu
July-September 2017, 7(3):82-88
DOI:10.4103/ais.ais_46_17  
Background: Systemic hypertension is a worldwide epidemic and often called a silent killer. It is the commonest cardiovascular disease among Africans, and an acknowledged potential risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, hypertensive heart disease, hypertensive heart failure, and end organ damage of the brain, eyes, and kidneys. Hypertensive heart disease results in high cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), which is evident on a chest radiograph. This study was aimed at using CTR on chest radiographs to predict the occurrence of hypertensive heart disease among hypertensive adults in Zaria. Patients and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria, using static conventional x-ray machine. Consecutive 305 hypertensive patients and equal number of normal individuals, age and sex matched (as controls), were recruited. The chest radiographs of the participants were taken according to standard technique, and required measurements such as CTR and aortic arch width were taken and documented. Results: The mean CTR for the hypertensive patients and controls were 0.52 ± 0.07 and 0.45 ± 0.04, respectively. There was significant relationship between CTR and hypertensive heart disease. Other variables such as blood pressure, age, and sex also correlated significantly with CTR. Conclusion: The CTR showed positive relationship with blood pressure and hypertensive heart disease and it could, therefore, be used to predict the occurrence of these conditions.
  7,545 321 1
Effect of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on serum lipids and blood glucose parameters
Neha Jindal, Gurjit Singh, Iqbal Ali, Gaurav Sali, Raghuveer Reddy
May-August 2013, 3(2):97-101
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.122926  
Background: Association between gallstone disease (GSD) and dyslipidemia has been shown in many studies. The aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid and serum glucose levels in patients with and without gallstone and also to determine changes in same parameters in gallstone patients before and after cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 patients with gallstone (Group A) and 96 without gallstone (Group B) were studied prospectively. Patients in both groups were investigated for GSD. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), atherogenic index (AI) and fasting glucose (FG) levels were estimated in both groups pre-operatively. Further, same parameters were studied in Group A post-operatively at 1 week and 1 month intervals. Results: The serum levels of TC, TGs, LDL-c, AI and FG were found to be higher and levels of serum HDL-c were lower in gallstone patients than that of the control group, though not statistically significant. In patients with gallstone, significant decrease in TC, LDL-c, TG, AI and increase in HDL-c levels were observed post-cholecystectomy at both intervals. Post-operatively, rise in serum glucose levels at 1 week interval and decrease at 1 month interval were noticed in patients with GSD. Conclusion: GSD is associated with abnormal lipid profile and serum glucose. Cholecystectomy leads to a significant decrease in these parameters except HDL-c in patients with GSD. The presence of gall stones should be perceived in the context of metabolic disorder, which may be investigated and treated. Asymptomatic gallstone patients may also be treated surgically resulting in improvement of above mentioned biochemical parameters.
  6,952 580 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Microvascular anastomosis in oral and maxillofacial surgery
Farhana Girkar, Gaurav Mittal, Puneet Kalra
April-June 2016, 6(2):65-73
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.194980  
In maxillofacial surgery, head and neck reconstruction of surgical defects caused by oral cancer is considered a challenging problem. Till recently, most oral and pharyngeal defects were closed primarily using skin flaps or tubed-pedicle flaps of skin from the trunk such as forehead flap, deltopectoral flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap; however, these were associated with compromised aesthetic and functional results. The advent of microvascular free tissue transfer over the past two decades has helped us overcome these disadvantages and has enabled the ablative surgeon to undertake surgical procedures that could not have been attempted in the past. Innovations in the field of microsurgery have resulted in better techniques, microscopes, and microinstruments, which have made free flap harvesting much easier. This article will review the various techniques of microvascular anastomosis used in head and neck reconstruction and analyze the newer techniques and methods employed today. It also attempts to provide a brief gist of the various free flaps used in head and neck reconstruction and the ones most expedient in the surgeons' arsenal.
  6,588 761 3
Ductal carcinoma In situ: The challenges and approaches
Sujan N Agrawal
July-September 2016, 6(3):137-145
DOI:10.4103/2278-9596.202366  
Cancer cells are in situ or invasive depending upon whether they have invaded basement membrane or not. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) signifies in situ growth in the ductal system of the breast. Screening mammography has revolutionized the screening and diagnosis of this clinically occult disease. Diagnosis may be further improved by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in selected cases. Suspicious area in the breast is subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The drawback of this simple procedure (FNAC) is that basement membrane cannot be assessed, and hence, image-guided, core needle biopsy or tru-cut biopsy is used to overcome this drawback. After confirmation of the diagnosis, DCIS may be treated by breast conservation or mastectomy and/or radiation. This paper discusses the various challenges encountered at every step in this clinically occult disease during screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Means and ways are highlighted to overcome the challenges.
  5,538 1,348 -
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